This part of IEC 61400-12 specifies a procedure for verifying the power performance characteristics of a single electricity-producing, horizontal axis wind turbine, which is not considered to be a small wind turbine per IEC 61400-2. It is expected that this standard shall be used when the specific operational or contractual specifications may not comply with the requirements set forth in IEC Publication 61400-12-1. The procedure can be used for power performance evaluation of specific turbines at specific locations, but equally the methodology can be used to make generic comparisons between different turbine models or different turbine settings.
The wind turbine power performance characterised by the measured power curve and the estimated AEP based on nacelle-measured wind speed will be affected by the turbine rotor (i.e. speeded up or slowed down wind speed). The nacelle-measured wind speed shall be corrected for this flow distortion effect through the use of a Nacelle Transfer Function (NTF). In IEC 61400-12-1, an anemometer is located on a meteorological tower that is located between two and four rotor diameters upwind of the test turbine. This location allows direct measurement of the ‘free’ wind with minimum interference from the test turbine’s rotor. In this IEC 61400-12-2 procedure, the anemometer is located on or near the test turbine’s nacelle. In this location, the anemometer is measuring wind speed that is strongly affected by the test turbine’s rotor and the nacelle. The NTF is applied to provide an appropriate correction for this interference. However, it must be noted that such corrections inherently increase the measurement uncertainty compared to a properly-configured test conducted in accordance with IEC 61400-12-1.
This IEC 61400-12-2 standard describes how to characterise a wind turbine’s power performance in terms of a measured power curve and the estimated AEP. The measured power curve is determined by collecting simultaneous measurements of nacelle-measured wind speed and power output for a period that is long enough to establish a statistically significant database over a range of wind speeds and under varying wind and atmospheric conditions. In order to accurately measure the power curve, the nacelle-measured wind speed is adjusted using a transfer function to estimate the free stream wind speed. The procedure to measure such a transfer function is given in IEC 61400-12-6 The AEP is calculated by applying the measured power curve to the reference wind speed frequency distributions, assuming 100% availability.
The procedure also provides guidance on determination of measurement uncertainty including assessment of uncertainty sources and recommendations for combining them into uncertainties in reported power and AEP.