This document is applicable to the execution, testing and monitoring of geotechnical grouting work.
Grouting for geotechnical purposes (geotechnical grouting) is a process in which the remote placement of a pumpable material in the ground is indirectly controlled by adjusting its rheological characteristics and by the manipulation of the placement parameters (pressure, volume and the flow rate).
The following principles and methods of geotechnical grouting are covered by this document:
- displacement grouting (compaction and compensation grouting);
- grouting without displacement of the host material (permeation, fissure/contact grouting, bulk filling).
Figure 1 illustrates the various injection methods associated with these two principles.
NOTE The term consolidation grouting is sometimes used to emphasize an improvement in the strength or deformation characteristics of a soil or rock mass, with the aim that it does not undergo any unacceptable deformation. The term compensation grouting is used when the objective of grouting is to concurrently compensate for ground loss.
The principal objectives of geotechnical grouting are:
- the modification of the hydraulic/hydrogeological characteristics of the ground;
- the modification of the mechanical properties of the ground;
- the filling of natural cavities, mine workings, voids adjacent to structures;
- inducing displacement to compensate for ground loss or to stabilize and lift footings, slabs and pavements.
Specialized grouting activities, generally associated with structural and/or emergency works, are not covered by this document.
The execution, testing and monitoring of jet grouting work is not covered by this document and is covered by EN 12716.