ISO/IEC 18328-1:2015 describes the general architecture of an ICC with ICC-managed devices. ISO/IEC 18328-1:2015 is one of a series of International Standards which outlines the content and the boundaries covered and standardised by the other parts of ISO/IEC 18328. The general principle of this part of ISO/IEC 18328 is that all activities regarding the ICC-managed devices are controlled by the card-IC. This principle also applies when ICC-managed devices are outside the card. ISO/IEC 18328-1:2015 is applicable for all kind of cards independent from interface technology for communication.