ISO 16678:2014 describes framework for identification and authentication systems. It provides recommendations and best practice guidance that include:
consequences and guidance of
management and verification of identifiers,
physical expression of identifiers, and
participants' due diligence;
vetting of all participants within the system;
relationship between the unique identifier and possible authentication elements related to it;
questions that deal with the identification of the inspector and any authorized access to privileged information about the object; and
inspector access history (logs).
Accordingly, ISO 16678:2014 establishes a framework and outlines functional units used to achieve trustworthiness and interoperability of such systems.
It does not specify any specific technical solutions, but instead describes processes, functions, and functional units using a generic model to illustrate what solutions have in common.
Object identification systems can incorporate other functions and features such as supply chain traceability, quality traceability, marketing activities, and others, but these aspects are out of scope of ISO 16678:2014.