This International Standard establishes the positioning of safeguards with respect to the approach speeds of
parts of the human body.
It specifies parameters based on values for approach speeds of parts of the human body and provides a
methodology to determine the minimum distances to a hazard zone from the detection zone or from actuating
devices of safeguards.
The values for approach speeds (walking speed and upper limb movement) in this International Standard are
time tested and proven in practical experience. This International Standard gives guidance for typical
approaches. Other types of approach, for example running, jumping or falling, are not considered in this
NOTE 1 Other types of approach can result in approach speeds that are higher or lower than those defined in this
Safeguards considered in this International Standard include:
a) electro-sensitive protective equipment [see IEC 61496 (all parts)], including:
⎯ light curtains and light grids (AOPDs);
⎯ laser scanners (AOPDDRs) and two-dimensional vision systems;
b) pressure-sensitive protective equipment (see ISO 13856-1, ISO 13856-2 and ISO 13856-3), especially
c) two-hand control devices (see ISO 13851);
d) interlocking guards without guard locking (see ISO 14119).
This International Standard specifies minimum distances from the detection zone, plane, line, point or
interlocking guard access point to the hazard zone for hazards caused by the machine (e.g. crushing,
Protection against the risks from hazards arising from the ejection of solid or fluid materials, emissions,
radiation and electricity are not covered by this International Standard.
NOTE 2 Anthropometric data from the 5th to the 95th percentile of persons of 14 years and older were used in the
determination of the intrusion distance value “C” in the equations.
NOTE 3 The data in this International Standard are based on experience of industrial application; it is the responsibility
of the designer to take this into account when using this International Standard for non-industrial applications.
NOTE 4 Data specifically for children have not been used in this International Standard. Until specific data are
available for approach speeds for children, it is the responsibility of the designer to calculate the distances taking into
account that children might be quicker and that a child might be detected later.
The International Standard is not applicable to safeguards (e.g. pendant two-hand control devices) that can be
moved, without using tools, nearer to the hazard zone than the calculated minimum distance.
The minimum distances derived from this International Standard are not applicable to safeguards used to
detect the presence of persons within an area already protected by a guard or electro-sensitive protective